Friday, December 5, 2014

Beyond The Vise, Part Deux: Shooting Boards

Squaring up the end of a workpiece on a shooting board.

At the end of my Popular Woodworking University webinar, Beyond the Vise: Workholding for Hand Tools, editor Megan Fitzpatrick suggested a followup on shooting boards. She said she gets so many questions about how to make perfect saw cuts. She always tells people, "You don't, no one does, you use a shooting board."

That's the magic of shooting boards. They allow your sawing to be rough, then they clean up the cut to a dazzling degree of precision. That works for square crosscuts and all manner of miter cuts.

Even if you are able to saw perfectly, a saw can never match the surface left by a sharp plane and a shooting board. That's the other magic. You can get end grain almost as smooth as edge grain. Mitered end grain comes off the shooting board with an amazing glassy surface.

In my followup webinar, Beyond The Vise, Part Deux: Shooting Boards, December 17 at 8:30pm EST, I'll cover everything you need to know to start using shooting boards to take your hand tool woodworking to the next level of precision. If you missed the first one, you can get a bundle of both.

Shooting boards are the precision secret weapons of hand tool woodworking. They really are that good. Not just an aid, they're vital members of the team formed by saws and planes. As shop appliances go, they require more care in construction and use than most to avoid wasting the precision they provide.

Shooting boards come in four basic flavors:
  • The bread-and-butter shooting board for shooting square end grain, used constantly for the EL (End, Length) steps of the FEWTEL sequence to produce precision dimensioned parts.
  • The flat miter shooting board, for mitering the corners of flat frames and moulding.
  • The angled bed shooting board, for mitering inside corners along edges or ends.
  • The donkey's ear, for mitering outside corners.
The most common miter shooting boards are for square corners, but specialized fixed or adjustable versions can handle other angles. These are used to produce multi-sided figures or segmented approximations to curved surfaces.

For each style, there are a variety of designs that have evolved over the years. Some include strategies for micro-adjustability to dial in the angle perfectly. For those that don't, a few judiciously placed layers of blue tape can fine tune it, acting as temporary shims.

Many shooting board designs are a variation of the basic bench hook. They have a front hook that catches on the front of the workbench, and a rear stop to catch the workpiece. The main difference is that the rear stop is very carefully fitted to an exact angle. This makes the shooting board a precision instrument, as opposed to the crude bench hook.

For speed and efficiency, you can use this setup just like a bench hook: just hook the board, hook the piece, and plane away. However, if this gets to be too much loose stuff to manage, you can secure the board's hook edge in a vise, or clamp the rear stop down with a hold fast. This extra stability is especially helpful for beginners, reducing the number of things that can slide around.

You can use a variety of different planes for shooting. There are specialty shooting planes, but they tend to be relatively expensive, so are much less common. Large bench planes work well because they have a lot of mass. This provides momentum to carry them through the cut across tough end grain. Block planes also work well, because they have a lower cutting angle for shearing the end grain, and they cup nicely in the palm for a good power stroke.

Whatever type of plane you use, the iron needs to be sharp. A freshly sharpened iron makes a huge difference in the quality of surface left behind on the wood.

Shooting miters is great fun, very satisfying. Mitered joints can be fussy because they require high accuracy to close up properly. A well-tuned shooting board makes this easy.

I'll go through this and more in the webinar, and you can ask questions live online. You can sign up for it here (or get the two-webinar bundle here). It'll make your hand tool woodworking much more precise.

For a micro-shimmable miter shooting board, see my companion blog post at Popular Woodworking Magazine.

You can also see videos of one method for making shooting boards at this two-part post. The combination shooting board in the second video is featured in the webinar.

Saturday, November 29, 2014

Sliding Dovetails

My practice piece. First attempt at the left was too loose. Second attempt was good and tight.

A project I'm currently working on calls for sliding dovetails. This is something I'd only briefly tried in the past, so I wanted to be sure I had the process down. Roy Underhill shows two variations in The Woodwright's Shop, in seasons 12 (1992, "Moravian Chair") and 31 (2011, "The Case For Books").

I largely followed his method, but I also adapted one of the jigs from Graham Blackburn's excellent new book Jigs And Fixtures For The Hand Tool Woodworker, a dovetail chisel guide.

Making The Dovetail Socket

I made the dovetail 1/4" deep in 3/4" stock. The socket is essentially a dado with angled sides. The only extra step is the marking of the dovetail angles for sawing.

I used a 1:6 dovetail angle, which I have conveniently marked on my wide bench hook so I can set my bevel gauge.

Marking the socket depth in the edge, running between two faint lines showing the width of the other piece. I darkened the mark with a pencil for visibility.

Setting my bevel gauge to the 1:6 dovetail angle I keep drawn on my bench hook.

Marking the dovetail lines on the edge, crossing the gauge line exactly at the width lines for the other piece.

The fully marked edge.

Marking the lines for the tops of the socket walls with a knife. I scribed several passes for a deep mark.

The fully marked edge and face. I marked the far edge for depth with the marking gauge.

Running a chisel down the waste side of each knife line to form a trough for the saw.

Sawing the socket walls is just like sawing dado walls, except that you have to tip the saw to the dovetail angle. By sighting down from the back of the saw to the dovetail lines on the edge, I was able to see the correct angle, just like sawing regular dovetails. As with those, I sawed to the waste side of the marked line.

Sawing the first wall using a bench hook.

Closeup of the saw pitched over to the left.

Sawing the other wall.

The sawn walls. The left wall cut looks a bit wide of the line.

To remove the waste, I popped the chisel in at each edge, just above the gauged line, to ensure that I wouldn't blow out the wood when coming across from the other direction. Then I rolled up the bulk of the waste from each edge into the middle. That's fun! I finished off with a small router plane set to the proper depth.

Popping the chisel in at the first edge. Do it in several layers.

Rolling up the waste toward the middle, again in several layers.

Routing to final exact depth.

Cleaning up some unsawn fibers in the corner.

The completed socket with smooth bottom.

Closeup of the socket end. That left wall has definitely gone past the width line.

Making The Dovetail Tongue

The tongue is a completely new operation, not really anything like a regular dovetail or dado. As you can see in the photo above, the shoulders of the socket are very narrow, so I just marked and knifed them to the approximate depth, no sawing required.

Marking down the edge to the depth of the socket. This needs to be a precision shot edge.

Deepening the line with a knife. This is all the crosscutting required.

The real challenge here is cutting the sides of the tongue at the dovetail angle so that it matches the socket. I tried a few totally freehand, carefully running the chisel down the edge at an angle. This produced a functional joint, in that it had the dovetail wedging action, but I couldn't match the angles reliably. This compromised the fit and strength as well as the appearance.

The dovetail chisel jig Blackburn shows is a block with the end cut down to the dovetail angle. You run the chisel flat across this angled face into the endgrain of the dovetail tongue. I adapted this slightly, planing the edge of a board to this angle, so that I could set up the board in one spot and move the chisel along it.

Guide board with edge planed to dovetail angle.

Positioning the guide board so that the chisel just meets the end grain corner all along the width of the workpiece. The guide board is sitting on a piece of 1/4" plywood to raise it up a bit.

With the chisel flat on the guide face, it just meets the corner of endgrain and face.

Pushing in for the cut, down to the knife line. This can be done in several layers to get to full depth.

Working the chisel into the end grain all the along the width of the board for the final layer of waste. Run a knife down the inside corner to free any uncut fibers.

The completed tongue, ready for dry fit.

The angles match nicely, but the socket is too wide. The tongue just drops in with no resistance. It would actually hold mechanically, and glue would swell the fibers to help close up the gap, but this is too loose a fit.

Since this was just a practice piece, I made a new socket next to the first one, but far enough away to avoid any splitting. This time I took more care to saw to the wast side of the lines. The results were much better. The fit was tight enough to require a mallet to drive it home (verging on too tight, but you can always pare away another layer if you need to).

Driving the tongue down into the socket.

A good tight fit. Even without glue, this won't come apart on its own.

This joint is surprisingly fast to make. It's worth practicing a few times to get it down. Worst case, a little glue mixed with sawdust will fill tiny gaps for perfect appearance. The chisel guide is a huge help for consistent angles.

Tapered Sliding Dovetails

This was for regular non-tapered sliding dovetail. Need a tapered sliding dovetail? As Roy showed, you skew one knife line for the socket inward by 1/8" at the far end so it makes a long gradual taper. Similarly, you draw a matching skew line on the end grain of the tongue piece.

The chisel guide piece isn't tapered, but you achieve a tapered cut simply by skewing the guide piece itself away from the end grain. Line it up so the chisel contacts the corner of end and face grain at one edge, and contacts the skewed line drawn on the end grain at the other edge.

Skewed line drawn across the end grain of the tongue.

Lining up the near edge of the tongue, as above for the non-tapered dovetail. Note how the workpiece splays away from the guide piece to achieve the tapered cut.

Lining up the far edge of the tongue, so the chisel contacts the skewed line.

The tapered joint is really no more difficult than the non-tapered joint. It just requires one extra mark, the end grain skew line. All the rest of the setup, alignment, and cutting are the same, just to the skewed lines.

The fit is a bit more finicky, since you want the sliding action to wedge up tight at a specific point. Make it stop early, then very carefully take a few tiny parings to be able to drive it in further to the stopping point.

Tuesday, November 11, 2014

Another Day Of JOTMOST For Veterans

On this day of remembrance and thanks to those who have sacrificed for the rest of us, I'm happy to announce that I've added another day of JOTMOST each week. JOTMOST is the Joseph O. Thornton Memorial Open Shop Time, in memory of my father-in-Law, USMC Capt. Joseph O. Thornton.

I've added Tuedays from 7:00PM to 9:30PM. Open to all US military veterans and active duty, I offer free lessons in hand tool woodworking, all tools and materials provided. You can learn some new skills, work on a project, or just make shavings to relax and have some fun with a few fellow veterans.

Full information is at this page. I have room for four people at a time. This is my tiny way of paying back the debt we owe as a society.

Sunday, November 2, 2014

Sonic Ethnographic Woodworking

P. Max Durayappah-Harrison is one of the students in my Shaker step stool woodworking class at the Cambridge Center for Adult Education in Harvard Square. He's a PhD candidate at the Department of Anthropology at Harvard University.

A few weeks ago he told me he had a project to do for his Sonic Ethnography class. The assignment was to record the sounds that represent someone. He asked if he could do a private lesson where he recorded me using my tools in my home workshop. Sure!

The video below is the result, actually a short audio documentary. He came over the next Sunday afternoon and we spent an hour and a half going through various hand tool operations. He recorded on a digital audio recorder with very sensitive microphones, mixing in questions about why I like working with hand tools.

It starts with the sound of him driving out to Ayer, about 30 miles west of Boston, then coming into the house and walking down the basement stairs. You can hear our two white doves in the kitchen and our chihuahua in the hallway. We also have a finch, a German Shepherd, and a cat, but they were all quiet.

In the shop you hear the sounds of various saws on wood, rough and fine handplaning an edge, sharpening a chisel on oilstones, and slicing off big chips diagonally across the grain with the chisel.

The last part is my Hyperkitten-style frame saw. He really liked the ringing of the plucked blade under tension; the sensitive microphones continued to pick it up after it fell below audibility. With headphones, it sounds like the Gong Of Doom!

Thanks, Max, it sounds great!

Saturday, October 4, 2014

Beyond The Vise

Using holdfasts to hold a piece of walnut for rabbetting the edge.

Workholding For Hand Tools

Why go beyond the vise? Most workbenches have some kind of vise for holding workpieces. A good vise is invaluable, but it's not the whole story. There are some operations or workpieces where it just doesn't work well. 

Things only get more frustrating if you don't have a good vise. Some are totally inadequate. And what do you do when working at a project site or some other remote location away from you main bench?

Woodworking is thousands of years old. Various workholding methods have been handed down across the generations, but many have faded into obscurity.

In my Popular Woodworking University webinar Beyond The Vise, November 5 at 8:30pm EST, I'll part the mists of time and show you how to use them in your work (a recorded version will be available if you're unable to be online at that time).

These are time-tested methods that are simple and efficient. Effective work holding makes your work faster and easier. And less frustrating.

One of my favorites is pictured above, the holdfast. This is an example of modern evolution of an ancient method. These Gramercy Tools holdfasts are made in a patented process from modern bridge wire ("wire" takes on new meaning when you're holding up something like the Golden Gate bridge). But blacksmiths have been making them for woodworkers for centuries.

The essence of simplicity, they just work. Slipped into vertical or horizontal dog holes, you whack them on the head to set, and whack them behind the head to release. You can hoist an entire workbench into the air with a holdfast set in the top.

The general requirement for work holding is that you need to be able to hold pieces for face, edge, and end grain work. This includes planing operations of all kinds, sawing, and chiseling, for stock preparation and joinery.

The tools apply force to the work in specific directions, so you need to restrain the workpieces against those forces. A plane directs force down the length of a board. Planing on a diagonal adds sideways force. You need to keep the work from sliding forward or sideways.

Some tools also apply force on the return stroke. A saw cuts on the forward stroke, but there's enough friction in the kerf that pulling it back on the return stroke pulls on the workpiece. So you need to restrain it against both forward and backward forces.

It's tempting to want to lock down the work against all possible motion, since that's what a vise does. The workpiece is restrained against movement in three dimensions, up and down, left and right, forward and back.

However, that's often unnecessary, and leads to time-consuming steps getting the piece locked down. Then you take more time to loosen it up and tighten it back down when you need to reorient it or swap it out with another one.

It's much more efficient to minimize the restraints to just the actual forces that will be applied, leaving the piece loose in other directions. Then you can instantly reorient it or swap it with the next piece. The time savings add up. The work flows more smoothly.

Round dog holes in my workbench give me lots of choices. In addition to holdfasts, I use simple dogs and pegs in them, plus a variety of more specialized stops. I like to use battens as planing stops, particularly ones fitted to the dog holes so they can just drop into place. I use bench hooks for fine sawing, and apply this concept to planing boards.

Add a couple more items, and you have a versatile set of work holding methods capable of handling any situation.

I use three workbench designs in my work: Chris Schwarz's Roubo with leg vise, Paul Sellers' bench with Record-style quick-release face vise, and Roy Underhill's portable bench with no vise (what, no vise?!?). I've also taught classes in rooms with nothing but bare worktables (what, no vise, no dog holes?!?).

I'm able to get the same work done on all of these by adapting my workholding strategy to the setup at hand. The latter was the most challenging, for which I created a space-age portable work surface adapted from a number of traditional methods. Since there was a left-handed student, I made one in a left-handed version.

You can see all of the methods I use here in various posts, but if you'd like the concise summary, sign up for the webinar. It'll make your hand tool woodworking faster, more effective, and more efficient.

Friday, September 12, 2014

JOTMOST Underway For Veterans

A young lady tries out the spokeshave at my booth during the Ayer Fourth of July celebration at the town park. Photo by Amelia Pak-Harvey, used by permission of Nashoba Publishing.

JOTMOST, the Joseph O. Thornton Memorial Open Shop Time for veterans, has been going well. I currently have four participants learning hand tool woodworking skills in my basement workshop on Wednesday evenings.

This is a free program open to all US military veterans and active duty, any service, any era. Full information is available here.

One of my past students came over for the first session and wanted to help pay for things. So I used his donation to stock up on materials for the program at Parlee Lumber in Littleton (they celebrate their 200th anniversary as a small working lumber mill next year!).

Generosity begets generosity; as I was chatting with the yard manager at Parlee and told him what I was using the lumber for, he told me to take a couple of extra pieces off the stack.

To help get word out, I setup a booth at the Ayer, MA Fourth of July celebration. I had a number of people of various ages stop by and try out the tools.

I also sent a notice to the town Veteran's Officer, and he very kindly posted it on the town website and Facebook page, helping to bring several people in.

The reporter from the local paper who had taken the photo above asked if she could do a story, so she visited the workshop a couple weeks ago to meet several veterans and get some photos. She wrote up a very nice story that you can read here.

While I only have space for four people at a time, if you're interested in attending or know someone who might be, I can start a wait list and notify you when a spot becomes available.

Friday, August 15, 2014

Four-Stroke Mortise And Tenon, part 2

(Go back to part 1, making the mortise)

Making the tenon comes straight from watching Phil Lowe work, which was the original genesis of the four-stroke tenoning exercise. You'll recognize much of this procedure from that exercise.

After marking out the tenon on the end of a rail, saw rough shoulder and cheek cuts 1/16" away from the line. On the coarse-medium-fine scale of operations, these are medium cuts; they don't have to be exact. Then pare with a paring chisel exactly to the line; this is the fine work that gets the joint to a snug slip-fit, properly aligned.

Tenon Layout

The critical measurement on a rail is the distance between the tenon shoulders on the ends. The actual length of each tenon depends on the depth of the mortise it will fit into.

The tenon should not quite bottom out in the mortise. You need to leave some room for glue, otherwise the hydraulic action of the glue will keep it from seating all the way.

Use a square or ruler as a crude depth gauge; no need for actual numeric measurements. Fit it into the mortise, then transfer this depth to the end of the rail, backing it off by up to 1/8" for glue space. If you've marked measured shoulder lines on your rail, mark the tenon length from this point.

Bottom out the end of the square in the mortise and pinch it to gauge the depth.

Shorten the depth measurement by about 1/8", then mark this on the rail end as the position of the shoulder. If you already have a shoulder measurement marked, mark it from there.

Knife the shoulder line squared all the way around the rail. This needs to be a very careful marking job, because it will determine how well the shoulders of the tenon seat against the stile. The knife line actually forms the surface cut in the wood, establishing a crisp shoulder line.

The key to this is making sure that the body of the square is always held against a marked reference surface, either reference face or reference edge (you did mark your reference face and edge when you squared up this stock, right?). Double check this every time you put square to wood.

Always set the knife in the last line and move the square up to it. That ensures there's no error in the positioning of the square.

Make each line with several light strokes of the knife. If you try to make it in one deep pass, it's easy to knock something astray by using too much force.

Knife the line in several light passes. Note the knife is cutting on the waste side of the line, with the square held against the reference edge.

To continue the line around, place the knife in the previous line, hold the square against the reference face, and slide the square to the knife. On this edge, the reference face is on the far side, away from me.

On this other edge, the reference face is on the near side, so I have to reverse the knife and square.

If you've done everything carefully, the last line will meet up with the first line at the final corner, forming a continuous line all around.

Mark the cheeks using the same gauge setting you used to mark the mortise (you kept that setting, right?). Again, one of the keys to precision is holding the gauge against the reference face of the rail.

Drag the double pins on the gauge back from the corner in several light passes, holding the gauge firmly against the reference face. Don't let the pins get pulled off track by the grain.

On the end grain, mark down from the upper corner...

...and up from the lower corner.

Darken the lines for visibility with a pencil sharpened to a chisel point.

Sawing The Shoulders

Hold the rail in a pair of bench hooks and saw rough shoulder cuts 1/16" away from the knifed shoulder line, just down to the cheek lines, using a crosscut backsaw. Also saw shoulder cuts on the edges, just deep enough to break the surface and leave a kerf for later. These saw cuts don't have to be pretty, so you don't need to make a knife wall for the saw to follow.

Crosscut rough shoulders with a back saw. Here I use the tip of my thumb as a guide to position the saw about 1/16" from the knifed shoulder line.

This is what it should look like after sawing the shoulder on each face, 1/16" from the knife line in the waste. The main thing is not to saw any deeper than the cheek lines, which would weaken the tenon.

Saw the edge shoulders just enough to establish the kerf.

Sawing The Cheeks

Holding the rail angled in the vise, saw rough cheek cuts 1/16" away from the gauged cheek lines, using a rip backsaw. Saw diagonally down one corner on both cheeks, then flip the piece around and saw the other corners diagonally.

Then straighten the rail up in the vise and finish the cuts straight across, removing the cheek waste. Again, these cuts don't have to be pretty, they just have to remove the bulk of the waste.

Saw diagonally down one cheek to the shoulder cut...

...then the other cheek.

Flip the piece and saw down the other corners. Don't worry if the two cuts on each cheek don't meet.

The resulting cuts. Not a particularly pretty job, but it doesn't need to be.

With the rail upright in the vise, saw down the remaining wood in each cheek. You may need to hold the scrap in place to keep it from snapping off. If it does, that probably won't hurt anything. In fact, if the grain is cooperative, you can actually chisel the cheeks off roughly, straight down the end grain.

Saw down the remaining cheek.

The resulting rough cheeks, ready for the four-stroke chisel technique.

Paring The Cheeks

This is where the practice from the four-stroke exercise comes in. This is the fine precision work that will determine how well the joint fits. Go back and do that exercise if you haven't tried it. It also shows how to check the cheek for flatness.

If the tenon is longer than the width of your paring chisel, make one or more crosscuts in the remaining cheek waste down to the cheek lines, dividing the tenon up into lanes that you'll pare independently. You can actually make these cuts when you do the rough shoulder cuts.

First stroke: pare across the cheek to the midpoint, removing half the remaining waste thickness. Observe carefully how the grain responds so you'll know how to handle the final strokes. Note that I've crosscut the tenon into two lanes that are narrower than my chisel; you can just see the cut line.

Second stroke: pare across from the other side to meet the first stroke.

Fourth stroke: after having pared across exactly on the marked line from the other side for the third stroke, paring across on the line to remove the final bit of waste.

First stroke on the opposite cheek, where you can see how much to leave for the final paring. You can also see that I repeated the four-stroke technique on the lower lane of the near cheek.

Second stroke on the opposite cheek.

Third stroke.

Final stroke.

Lay the flat back of the chisel across the cheek and see if there are any high spots. Carefully pare these down even with the rest of it using a skewed sideways sliding cut and pushing the chisel end with your thumb.

Push the skewed chisel sideways with your thumb across any high spots.

Cutting The Tenon To Width

Orient the tenon properly with respect to the mortise and mark its width from the mortise. This fits the tenon exactly to the mortise. Saw down the tenon with a ripsaw to remove this waste. You may need to crosscut it a bit more at the shoulder to meet this cut.

Hold the tenon end up to the mortise and mark the actual width.

Saw down this with a ripsaw. Careful, it goes fast!

Crosscut any last remaining bit to remove the waste.

Paring The Shoulders

The final trimming is to pare the shoulders down at the knifed shoulder line. This will be very visible and will affect how the rail snugs up against the stile. Remove this waste a little at a time, using the corner of the chisel progressively along the shoulder. If that corner starts to dull, come from the other direction using the other corner.

Set the corner of the chisel in the scribed line and push straight in to cut the shoulder cleanly to the tenon, then flick the bit of waste off. Rest the edge of the chisel on the already-pared shoulder as a reference to keep it flat.

Continue around to the tenon ends.

Turn the piece around in the vise and do the other side.

If there's any junk left in the very corner of the shoulder, clean it out by paring across, then in.

Chamfer The Tenon

Chamfer the end of the tenon so that it slides in smoothly without catching on the mortise walls. This also makes it easy to trim the tenon length if it bottoms out too soon in the mortise.

Angle the chisel and choke up on the end to chamfer the edge with a skewed cut.

Repeat on the opposite edge.

Come in from each end and pop the edge off.

The fully pared and chamfered tenon.

The opposite cheek.

If the tenon bottoms out in the mortise, keeping the shoulder from snugging up, pare across the chamfered end to shorten it. Alternatively, you can deepen the mortise a bit.

Test fit: the shoulder doesn't close up all the way.

Pare across the tenon end from one side...

...then the other, meeting somewhere in the middle.

The slightly shorter tenon.

Test fit: now the joint closes up tight, with no visible gap.

Evaluating Fit

A good fit means that the tenon slips together with hand pressure, and then is snug enough to hold together when you pick it up. It shouldn't be so tight that you have to drive it together with a mallet; that will just split it. It shouldn't be so loose that the rail falls out when you pick up the stile.

Either situation can be corrected, but it's time consuming. A tight tenon can be pared very carefully to fit. A loose tenon can be repaired by gluing a new cheek on, then paring it back down.

When slipped together and held up by the stile, the rail should not slip out.

A snug slip fit.

The other important thing is the joint should be flat. The rail should not be twisted when the stile lies flat, and the rail should lie in the same plane as the stile.

Either of these conditions can be corrected by selective paring, but every little bit you remove loosens the fit.

The rail and stile lying flat in the same plane.

After glue up and the glue has dried, cut the horn off (remember that extra length on the stile?), then carefully plane the end grain in from the corner flush with the rail edge.

This method appears to be time-consuming, but it's not. The sawing is very fast, because it doesn't require that much care. The paring is fast because there's only a small amount of material left to remove. You'll find you can develop a fast, efficient rhythm with a high degree of control to produce consistently snug joints.

Practice this by making a joint, then cut if off and start again. Repeat 10 or 20 times until you've got it down.

If you want to learn to fit a tenon right off the saw, you can still use this method to practice careful sawing. Once you feel you can saw well enough, you can omit the paring step. Either way works, use whichever is most efficient and enjoyable for you.